Cartels

Businesses that make agreements with their competitors to fix prices, rig bids, share markets or restrict outputs are breaking laws and stealing from consumers and businesses by inflating prices, reducing choices and damaging the economy.

What is a cartel?

The Competition and Consumer Act requires businesses to compete fairly. Most Australian businesses increase their customer base and their profits honestly through:

  • continual innovation to improve products or services
  • sales and marketing showing the genuine benefits of their products or services
  • keeping costs down so they can offer competitive prices.

Businesses struggling to compete fairly and maintain profits may be tempted to deliberately and secretly set up or join a cartel with their competitors.

A cartel exists when businesses agree to act together instead of competing with each other. This agreement is designed to drive up the profits of cartel members while maintaining the illusion of competition.

There are certain forms of anti-competitive conduct that are known as cartel conduct. They include:

Cartels can be local, national or international. Established cartel members know that they are doing the wrong thing and will go to great lengths to avoid getting caught. Some estimates suggest that while a cartel is operating, the price of affected commodities rises by at least 10 per cent. Worldwide, cartels steal billions of dollars every year.

Why are cartels illegal?

The Competition and Consumer Act not only prohibits cartels under civil law, but makes it a criminal offence for businesses and individuals to participate in a cartel.

Cartels are immoral and illegal because they not only cheat consumers and other businesses, they also restrict healthy economic growth by:

  • increasing prices for consumers and businesses through artificially inflating input and capital costs across the supply chain, including the cost of buildings and equipment rent, interest and decreased opportunities over the life of an asset
  • reducing innovation and choices by protecting their own inefficient members who no longer have to compete so don’t bother to invest in research and development
  • reducing investment by blocking new industry entrants that might invest in opportunities, economic growth and jobs
  • locking up resources because they interfere with normal supply and demand forces and can effectively lock out other operators from access to resources and distribution channels
  • destroying other businesses by controlling markets and restricting goods and services to the point where honest and well-run companies cannot survive
  • destroying consumer confidence in an entire industry sector, including creating negative consumer sentiment towards law-abiding businesses that are not involved in cartel conduct.
  • increasing taxes and reducing services by targeting the public sector and extracting extra costs paid for by all consumers through rates and taxes
  • decreasing infrastructure by rigging bids in public infrastructure projects which inflates costs and ultimately reduces the public sector capacity to invest in beneficial projects.

Possible penalties for individuals involved in a cartel

Individuals found guilty of cartel conduct could face criminal or civil penalties, including:

  • up to 10 years in jail and/or fines of up to $340 000 per criminal cartel offence
  • a pecuniary penalty of up to $500 000 per civil contravention.

It is illegal for a corporation to indemnify its officers against legal costs and any financial penalty.

Possible penalties for corporations involved in a cartel

For corporations, the maximum fine or pecuniary penalty for each criminal cartel offence or civil contravention (whichever applies) will be the greater of:

  • $10 000 000
  • three times the total value of the benefits obtained by one or more persons and that are reasonably attributable to the offence or contravention
  • where benefits cannot be fully determined, 10 per cent of the annual turnover of the company (including related corporate bodies) in the preceding 12 months.

Other penalties for cartel civil contraventions or criminal offences include:

  • injunctions
  • orders disqualifying a person from managing corporations
  • community service orders.

ACCC cartel investigation powers

The ACCC has extensive powers to investigate cartels and may:

  • compel any person or company to provide information about a suspected breach of the law, including providing documents or giving verbal evidence
  • seek search warrants from a magistrate and execute these on company offices and the premises of company officers
  • notify the Australian Federal Police who in certain circumstances collect evidence using phone taps and other surveillance devices.

The ACCC has released guidelines for how it will approach:

  • investigations of alleged cartel arrangements that break civil and criminal laws
  • decisions relating to referring matters for possible criminal prosecution.

See: ACCC approach to cartel investigations [ pdf (76.26 KB) ]
Cartels case studies & legal cases

How to avoid joining a cartel

If you are invited into an arrangement that seems like a cartel, you should seek independent legal advice and notify the ACCC. Remember that if you don’t report suspicious activities to the ACCC, others might choose to break ranks and report your involvement to us.

Subscribe to the Cartel Information Network

The ACCC offers a free subscription service designed to help you be aware of the way cartels operate so that you can identify, avoid, and report cartel conduct.

Cartel Information Network subscription form [ pdf (27.27 KB) | doc (63.5 KB) ]

Relevant sections of the Competition and Consumer Act

s. 44ZZRA – simplified outline of the criminal offences and civil prohibitions relating to cartel conduct
s. 44ZZRF – criminal offence for making a contract, arrangement or understanding containing a cartel provisions
s. 44ZZRG – criminal offence for giving effect to a contract, arrangement or understanding containing a cartel provision
s. 44ZZRJ – civil prohibition for making a contract, arrangement or understanding containing a cartel provisions
s. 44ZZRK – civil prohibition for giving effect to a contract, arrangement or understanding containing a cartel provision

Immunity policy for cartel conduct

The ACCC has a policy to provide greater certainty for immunity applicants so we are better able to detect and break up cartels operating in Australia.

See: ACCC immunity policy for cartel conduct.

Report a cartel / apply for immunity

  • Report evidence of cartel conduct by contacting the ACCC
  • If you’re involved in a cartel be the first to apply for immunity from prosecution in exchange for helping us with our investigations, by contacting:

Marcus Bezzi, Executive General Manager,
Enforcement and Compliance Division
Phone: 02 9230 3894 Email: cartelimmunity@accc.gov.au

More information

Bid rigging
Market sharing
Output restrictions
Price fixing
The Marker - short film