Our frequently asked questions provide guidance for franchisors, franchisees and prospective franchisees.
The Franchising Code (the Code) has been amended, with many of the changes commencing on 1 July 2021. The information on this page has not yet been updated to reflect these changes. A summary of the key changes to the Code is available.
If someone approaches you and expresses an interest in becoming a franchisee you must provide them with a two-page information statement.
Example: You receive a phone call from a prospective franchisee. The prospective franchisee asks detailed questions about the system, the price of a franchise and the next steps in obtaining more information. You direct the prospective franchisee to the application form on your website, which she completes. In this situation, you must provide the prospective franchisee with an information statement as soon as possible after you receive the completed form.
You must also provide them with a disclosure document, the franchise agreement (in its final form) and a copy of the Code at least 14 days before they enter into an agreement or make a non-refundable payment.
If you require a party to enter into other agreements as a condition of the franchise agreement (e.g. lease/hire purchase agreement, confidentiality agreement, security agreement, etc.), you must also provide the prospective franchisee with copies of these documents at least 14 days before the franchise agreement is signed, or as soon as they become available.
If the franchisee will lease premises from you or one of your associates, you will also need to provide them with certain documents relevant to the lease (these are set out in the Code). These documents must be provided within 1 month after the lease or agreement to lease is signed by the parties. The requirements under the Code will differ where the franchisee occupies, without a lease, premises leased by you or your associate.
The start of a new financial year is a key time for disclosure. It is when you will need to update your disclosure document to reflect any changes that occurred in the last financial year. For franchisors who run their business on the standard financial year (July–June), you will have until 31 October to update your disclosure document. If you operate on a different financial year, the same obligations will apply but you will need to ensure the update is completed within four months of the end of your financial year.
When updating your disclosure document, make sure that the information you provide is current and accurate. The disclosure document must not contain any information that is false or misleading, or omit any important information about the franchise.
Be aware that unless you receive a written request from a franchisee, you are not required to update your disclosure document if you:
- entered into only one franchise agreement (or none) during the last financial year
- you don’t intend to enter into a franchise agreement in the upcoming financial year.
For more information, see: Disclosure obligations & COVID-19.
If new financial information (e.g. solvency statement, financial reports, independent auditor’s report) becomes available, even after a franchisee or prospective franchisee has been given a disclosure document, the franchisor must provide this new financial information as soon as reasonably practicable.
If the person is about to sign a franchise agreement, the updated disclosure document and financial information must be given to them before they sign the franchise agreement.
For more information, see: Disclosure obligations & COVID-19.
If your franchisees contribute to a marketing or other cooperative fund, the Franchising Code requires you to prepare an annual marketing fund statement.
The statement must:
- make sense to an ordinary reader (not just an accounting professional)
- include enough detail to give franchisees meaningful information about the fund’s income (for example, franchisee/corporate store contributions, supplier rebates) and expenses (particularly marketing and advertising expenses).
Meaningful information allows franchisees to understand how, when and what the money from the fund was spent on, and puts franchisees in a position to make an informed assessment as to whether that use was appropriate.
For example, ‘50 per cent spend’ under a line item of ‘Advertising – Television’ on the marketing fund statement, with no further information (such as which television channels the advertising appeared on and when), is unlikely to provide enough detail. The availability of other sources of information (such as company newsletters) is irrelevant as the Franchising Code requires the sufficient detail to be included in the financial statement itself.
Be mindful that different items or categories of expenditure may require different levels of detail. Generally, larger expenses will be more important to franchisees and require a greater level of detail.
Tip: You may be uncertain about how much information to provide in the statement. It is better to give your franchisees more information than not enough — as long as the information is clear and accurate. Read our media release on the Ultra Tune judgment for further guidance about what might constitute meaningful information in marketing fund statements.
You’re required to keep any documents or written material that the Franchising Code requires, or allows a franchisee or prospective franchisee to provide to you. This includes:
- requests for a disclosure document
- notices of dispute
- confirmations of receipt of disclosure document
- professional advice statements
- requests to transfer a franchise to a third party (and any additional information provided regarding the transfer)
- requests not to disclose former franchisee details.
In addition, you’ll be required to keep any documents that you use to support any claims or statements made in your disclosure document. For example, if you provide a prospective franchisee with summarised historical earnings figures, you must keep the documents used to determine those figures.
These documents must be kept for six years from when they were created. The ACCC can request these documents in accordance with its powers to audit franchisor compliance with the Code.
Tip: You can keep documents electronically.
Can franchisors require franchisees to purchase goods/services from a particular supplier or a list of nominated suppliers?
Franchisors often require franchisees to purchase goods or services from themselves, their related entities or third party suppliers. This type of conduct is known as ‘exclusive dealing’.
Exclusive dealing occurs when one person trading with another imposes some restrictions on the other’s freedom to choose with whom, in what, or where they deal.
Exclusive dealing supplier arrangements are permitted as long as the conduct wouldn’t have the purpose, effect or likely effect of substantially lessening competition in the relevant market. An arrangement will be unlawful under the Act if it breaches this ‘purpose or effect’ test.
Generally, the more trade or commerce in a particular market is tied up by an exclusive arrangement, and the more market power the purchaser or supplier has, the more likely that arrangement is to substantially lessen competition.
If you’re concerned that your supply arrangements may raise competition concerns, you can seek an exemption from the ACCC to engage in the conduct.
Note: From 6 November 2017, third line forcing (a form of exclusive dealing) is no longer prohibited outright under the Act. Third line forcing will now only raise concerns under the Act if it has the purpose, effect or likely effect of substantially lessening competition.
When considering a franchise opportunity you should:
- read the franchisee manual
- undertake some franchising education
- take steps to identify it’s a genuine business and reconsider a business opportunity if you see warning signs
- seek advice from a lawyer, accountant and business adviser with franchising expertise
- speak to current and former franchisees about the system and their relationship with the franchisor. The disclosure document provided to you should have contact details for current and former franchisees
- make sure you receive, read and have a reasonable opportunity to understand all information provided by the franchisor.
You are entitled to terminate a new franchise agreement (not a renewal, extension or transfer) within seven days of:
- entering into the agreement (or an agreement to enter into a franchise agreement) or
- making a payment under the agreement.
Note: The cooling-off period will commence from whichever of the above occurs first.
If you choose to exercise this right, you are entitled to a refund of the payments you have made. The franchisor must provide this refund within 14 days, although they may keep an amount to cover their reasonable expenses if the expenses or method of calculation is set out in the franchise agreement.
The Code sets out a framework for resolving disputes. Franchisors must also develop an internal complaint-handling procedure that complies with the Code. If a dispute arises, you can choose to follow the franchisor’s process, or the process set out in the Code.
The obligation to act in good faith extends to both parties throughout dispute resolution.
Steps for dealing with a dispute
- Provide your franchisor with written details of the problem, the outcome you’re seeking and how you think the outcome can be met.
- Try to agree with your franchisor about how to resolve the dispute.
- If you cannot agree within 21 days, you can refer the matter to a mediator.
- If you cannot agree on a mediator, you or the franchisor can ask the Mediation Adviser to appoint a mediator.
- If mediation is initiated, you and your franchisor must attend mediation and try to resolve the dispute.
See also: Resolving franchising disputes
Businesses are generally free to set their prices and discount their goods and services as they see fit. While there’s nothing wrong with a franchisor providing a recommended resale price (RRP), it would be illegal for a franchisor to put pressure on its franchisees to charge the listed prices or any other set price, for example RRP less 10 per cent.
Note: Franchisors can generally set a maximum price for goods and services that franchisees cannot sell above.
Churning is the repeated selling of a franchise site by a franchisor in circumstances where the franchise would be reasonably aware that the site is unlikely to be successful, regardless of the individual skills and efforts of the franchisee. The Act doesn’t have a specific prohibition against churning, however such conduct may raise concerns about misleading and deceptive conduct, unconscionable conduct or a lack of good faith.
On 1 June 2020 amendments to the Code were introduced for new vehicle dealership agreements. The amendments relate to end of term arrangements, dispute resolution and capital expenditure for new vehicle dealership agreements.
For capital expenditure, the amendments mean a franchisor must not require a franchisee to undertake significant capital expenditure during the term of their agreement. However, this is subject to exceptions.
The franchisor can still require a franchisee to pay for significant capital expenditure that:
- is disclosed to the franchisee in the disclosure document that is given to them before entering into or renewing the agreement, or extending the term or scope of the agreement
- is to be incurred by a majority of franchisees and is approved by a majority of those franchisees
- is required to comply with legislative obligations, or
- is agreed to by the franchisee.
Expenditure that is included in the disclosure document must include as much information as practicable about the expenditure — for example, the rationale, amount, timing and nature of the expenditure as well as the anticipated outcomes, benefits and risks.
This could include the type of upgrades to facilities or premises, any planned changes to the corporate identity of the franchisor’s brand, and indicative costs for any building materials.
The franchisor and franchisee must discuss proposed significant capital expenditure including the circumstances under which the franchisee or prospective franchisee is likely to recoup the expenditure, having regard to the geographical area of operations of the franchise. The parties must act in good faith when undertaking these discussions.
Note: The requirements outlined above only apply where the disclosure document is created or updated on or after 1 June 2020 and the new vehicle dealership agreement is entered into, renewed or extended after the creation or updating of the disclosure document. Different capital expenditure requirements apply to agreements and disclosure documents that are not new vehicle dealership agreements.